‘White’ works on paper (c.1974-78)

Arkley in his Prahran studio c.1974 (photo: Elizabeth Gower)

Arkley in his Prahran studio c.1974 (photo: Elizabeth Gower)

Introductory remarks

From 1974 onwards, Arkley’s production of works on paper accelerated at a remarkable rate. His studio collection alone contains a large collection of examples dateable to between 1974 and 1978, many of ‘finished’ or exhibition quality. Other examples are in other collections, or are documented from other sources such as Arkley’s own slide archive.

Generally speaking, these works are in the ‘white’ style of the paintings he was painting and exhibiting during this same period, and he spelt this out on the cover of one of his studio folders containing smaller-scale examples: ‘Drawings geo-white / organic white / Dates from 1975 to 1978’ (reproduced below).

This substantial corpus of just over 250 drawings is catalogued here.

Arkley's annotations on folder of studio drawings

Arkley’s annotations on folder of studio drawings

Arkley’s ‘white period’

Together with the extant corpus of approximately 25 ‘white’ works on canvas dating from 1974/5-1977, these works on paper form a discrete phase in Arkley’s oeuvre – strictly speaking, the second period of his career (treating the student and early mature work to 1973 as the first).

The ‘white’ canvases fall into two groups: (a) the more minimal and geometric style typical of his first Tolarno exhibition in April 1975; and (b) the increasingly detailed and expressive ‘organic’ manner of many of the canvases in his second Tolarno show (Aug.-Sept. 1976) and first Coventry Gallery exhibition (May 1977). There is some overlap between these two groups of paintings, especially during 1976. A similar distinction may be observed in the works on paper, though there are fewer clear dates (see Comment on Dating, below).

The end of the ‘white period’ is signalled by the transition to door-format canvases and ‘psychedelic’ decorative imagery developed during 1978 and announced in Arkley’s ‘recent Paintings’ exhibition at Tolarno in May 1979. Some works on paper from 1977-8, e.g.cat.nos.108 and 258, clearly relate to the ‘door’ canvases. Arkley’s return from overseas in Feb.1978 is sometimes taken to have generated the change, but it was no sudden shift, and the transition is actually quite gradual. Several ‘door’ canvases dating from 1978-80 are still black and white, and the predominantly monochrome cast of the ‘white’ period can still be felt in major works dating from the early 1980s (eg. Primitive [mural] (1981) [W/P] and Science 1981), and also later.

Arkley’s 1995 ‘White + Black’ exhibition at Tolarno acknowledged the significance of the ‘white period’ for his subsequent development, and included a number of examples, both on canvas and paper.

The drawings themselves

In many of the ‘white’ drawings catalogued here – alongside his finished canvases and Visual Diaries from the same period – Arkley developed a sort of self-generated training program, apparently designed to test and refine his formal capacities and technical skills. These sequences of works on paper, especially the smaller sheets (cat.nos.1-135) sometimes bring to mind the Bauhaus teaching methods of Paul Klee or Johannes Itten, both known to Arkley through his reading – and referred to regularly in his diaries [for further discussion, see Gregory, Carnival in Suburbia (2006): refer index].

At other times, the drawings seem reminiscent of the ‘studies’ musicians undertake to hone their skills, training themselves in particular techniques: arpeggios, triplets with the left hand, broken chords, etc. – or in Arkley’s case, the varying weight and intensity of black sprayed lines, the contrast between sprayed and precisely drawn lines, the interplay between black and primary colours, and so on.

Some examples clearly relate to extant ‘white’ paintings – although whether as preparatory studies or variants is not usually clear. In a few cases, individual drawings do seem very like preparatory drawings for canvases: compare e.g. cat.no.177 with Untitled [Five stripes] (c.1975-6), or cat.no.238 with Organic Model D (Intuitive Reason) (1976).

Normally, though, there is a looser connection. Examples are the ‘Actuality’ sketches from 1974-5 [cat.nos.84-89 and 162; and see also cat.nos.83, 90 and 163], paralleling the refined canvas Actuality (Is the Void Between Events) (1976). A number of drawings relate to the gestural sprayed verticals in ‘white’ canvases such as Stroke (1975) – see e.g.cat.nos.91, 201-212; likewise, the prominent horizontals in cat.nos.193-99 bring to mind canvases like Fast Lid 1974 and Tracing (1975?). The repeated short sprayed strokes in cat,nos.99-101 relate directly to the major early white canvas Oriental (Wave Study) 1974 [aka Second Tracing].

Occasionally, a specific formal idea in a ‘white’ canvas also appears in one of more drawings from the period – e.g. the envelope shapes in both Untitled ['Five stripes'] (c.1975-6) and cat.no.211. The blue and yellow squares in Organic Model G (Black Square) [Tolarno] 1976 also appear in cat.no.156, and the black square also figures in several drawings, e.g. cat.nos.152-53.

As mentioned, several drawings foreshadow paintings dating from shortly after Arkley’s ‘white period’ – so for example the curvilinear patterning in cat.nos.34 and 112 looks forward to canvases like Arabesque 1979 [aka Curvilinear] and Baroque (1979). Similarly, cat.no.123 is closely comparable with Soft Nouveau (1978).

However, the great majority of these drawings stand alone, testifying to the wealth of artistic ideas the young artist was generating in this formative period. And while occasional examples are reminiscent of other artists’ work (as indicated in individual entries: see e.g. cat.no.185, comparing Klee), the overall impression is of the development of a fundamentally original creative mind. Indeed, a number of drawings, such as Vowel Formats [A126] (c.1974-76) [W/P] (cat.no.180), and Winter Notations 1975 [W/P] and its several variants (cat.nos.230-34), impress in their own right as major compositions from this period, matching the extant canvases in strength and complexity.

The catalogue and its arrangement

The majority of these drawings remained in the artist’s studio collection at his death (now private collection, Melbourne), and were inventoried at the time – a crucial step towards a full accounting of Arkley’s known oeuvre. These works are designated with a number preceded by A or W. Other examples are in other collections, and a few are known only from the artist’s archive slides. Almost none of them was signed, dated or titled by the artist. Most examples are in pen and ink, and/or sprayed paint, usually black. Only a few deploy colour (mostly primary colour).

Only a small number have ever been exhibited (a few were shown in Arkley’s exhibitions at Monash in 1991 and Tolarno in 1995, and in the 2006-7 NGVA retrospective: for a general view of the 2006-7 installation, see main Arkley Works entry for 1974). Given the bulk of material, only a selection of these drawings was included in the first edition of Arkley Works (2010).

Given that so few of these works are dated or reliably dateable, many can only be dated generally to c.1974-8, although most probably date from c.1974-76; the great majority therefore fall under 1974 in the chronological listing in Arkley Works. This makes for a very unwieldy mass of material – hence the decision to develop this separate catalogue. In turn, the decision has been made to arrange the drawings systematically, rather than following the studio numbering, or concocting some arbitrary chronology.

Arkley himself grouped the ‘white’ works in his collection by size, and this has been used as the main organizational principle (sizes given refer to the sheet of paper involved; the image is usually smaller, often indicated with a pencil framing line). Then, within each of those categories, the works are organized according to their formal and conceptual logic (as interpreted by the cataloguer). NB it is not suggested that Arkley actually produced the drawings in the sequence listed.

Accordingly, the general arrangement of this catalogue is as follows:

(i) cat.nos.1-135: small-scale works (mostly on sheets measuring c.31.8 x 25.3 cm [c.13” x 10”]), divided in turn into two groups: those in ink, pencil etc. but without significant use of spray paint (cat.nos.1-69); and examples including significant use of spray paint (cat.nos.70-135). Nos.124-135, all smaller-scale works including significant use of colour, many of them known only via archive slides, are grouped together at the end of this section

(ii) cat.nos.136-184: medium-scale drawings (almost all on sheets c.38 x 56 cm [c.15” x 22”])

(iii) cat.nos.185-258: larger-scale works, typically 56 x 76 cm [c.22” x 30”], or larger

(iv) cat.nos.App.1-11: unidentified works for which a photo does not seem to exist. Since several of these works may be identical with those in the main catalogue, they are listed separately here.

Hyperlinks direct the reader to individual Arkley Works entries, containing photographs and further details.

Comment on Dating

Most of the works catalogued here are undated. As a general guide, works of a primarily geometric character probably date from c.1974-75, and those more clearly ‘organic’ in character were probably produced c.1976-77, as for the paintings of the period (see above); however, this is not a hard and fast rule.

Only a few works are actually dated* or otherwise securely tied to a particular year, viz.:

1974: cat.nos.84 and 99 (both illustrated in Spray as from 1974), 97* (annotated as the first in a set dating from 1974), 100, 192*, 205*, 206*, 210* [recto], 233* and 249*

1975: cat.nos.89*, 95*, 119, 120*, 124*, 177 (c.1975-76?), 230*, 231*, 245* and 250*

1976: cat.nos.25-26 (c.1976-77? – NB collaged French text); 90*, 98*, 116*, 178*, 212* and 234*  

1977: cat.nos.115*, 117*, 118*, 122* and 123*

1978: cat.nos.108* and 258* {NB there are also further works on paper dating from 1978, but no longer in Arkley’s ‘white’ style: e.g. Psychedelic Painting [study] 1978 [W/P]}.

CATALOGUE

(i)  Cat.nos.1-135: smaller-scale works (typically, on sheets measuring c. 31.8 x 25.3 cm)

1         Untitled [A31] (c.1974-76) [W/P]   Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A31] - Outlined square, divided diagonally; arguably the most minimal of Arkley’s ‘white’ works on paper.

2        Untitled [A12] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A12] - Zig-zag patterns over squared pencil grid, prefiguring Arkley’s later interest in serial patterning - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

3        Untitled [A20] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A20] - Branching forms in ink over pencilled verticals.

4        Untitled [A19] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A19] - Six ruled verticals in ink, with branching lines - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

5        Untitled [A10] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, c.31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (below image): ‘coloured spray’ [A10] - Eight ink horizontals with branching lines. See also cat.no.106, where a similar linear pattern underlies an array of black sprayed dots.

6        Untitled [A44] (c.1974-76) [W/P]   Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘X’ [A44]      - Series of horizontals with branching lines; a more elaborate version of the idea in cat.no.5.

7        Untitled [A29] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A29]        – Angled lines and curves above seven horizontals, in ink.

8        Untitled [A21] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A21] - A series of small shapes made up of lines and arcs in black ink - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

9        Untitled [A1] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A1] - Outlined circles in rectangles in the upper half of the sheet.

10      Untitled [A35] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A35]         - Overlapping segments of circles, outlined in black ink.

11       Untitled [A5] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A5] - Pattern made up of several overlapping outlined circles within a rectangular frame.

12       Untitled [A6] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A6] – Pattern made up of outlined circles and curving lines.

13       Untitled [A24] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A24] - Curving forms outlined in ink.

14       Untitled [A49] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil, below image: ‘3 in twice around / always moving compass left to right’; also inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A49] - The inscription spells out the idea of movement in the sequence of outlined curves. Possibly identical with the unidentified work Circular Model (1976) [W/P], shown at Tolarno in 1995 (cat.no.App.6).

15       Untitled [A27] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil: to left of image: ‘Braque /  {word unclear}’; and below image: ‘pointlism / searat / nancy graves / jennifer bartlett’ {sic} [A27] - The image comprises curved outlined shapes in a triangulated frame. It is unclear whether Arkley’s inscribed notes relate specifically to this image, or are simply for general reference.

16       Untitled [A15] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A15] - Linear pattern made up largely of half circles, with a diagonal line crossing from the top left - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

17       Untitled [A210] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A210] - Pattern of outlined half circles and curves.

18       Untitled [A25] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A25] - Complex pattern of outlined half circles and curves.

19       Untitled [A30] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A30] - Series of intersecting linear arcs.

20       Untitled [A18] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A18] - Outlined circles, arcs and lines within a rectangle.

21       Untitled [A73] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A73]         - Mechanical-looking pattern of curved lines, possibly suggesting the workings of a clock.

22       Untitled [A42] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A42]         - Line-drawing reminiscent of a mechanical drawing; see also next entry.

23       Untitled [A43] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A43] - Another mechanical-drawing style image; see also previous entry.

24       Untitled [A40] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A40] - Here, outlined circles and tubular forms intersect - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

25       Untitled [A90] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink, pencil and collage on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A90] - The taped-in elements include fragments of French text, suggesting the work may have been produced shortly before or after Arkley’s European trip (August 1977 to February 1978); see also cat.no.26.

26       Untitled [A91] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink, pencil and collage on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A91] - A pair to cat.no.25, also possibly dating from closer to Arkley’s European trip in 1977.

27       Untitled [A22] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A22] - Several types of decoration run in parallel, diagonally, across the upper left section of this sheet.

28       Untitled [A36] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A36] - This linear composition suggests an architectural view.

29       Untitled [A14] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A14] - Four outlined circles within a rectangular border.

30       Untitled [A41] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil, within image, u.r.: ‘WRONG’ [A41] - Linear composition in cross format, possibly suggesting an architectural plan.

31       Untitled [A38] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A38]  - Linear composition; the curving lines possibly suggest an architectural interior.

32       Untitled [A39] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A39]         - Linear composition, again suggesting an architectural plan or section; see also previous entry.

33       Untitled [A16] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A16] - Ornamental linear composition; the design within the central circle suggests a swastika.

34       Untitled [A50] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31/8 x 25.3 [A50] - Minimal composition comprising curving lines. The shapes here prefigure Arkley’s later 1970s interest in the arabesque form: see e.g. Arabesque 1979 [aka Curvilinear].

35       Untitled [A8] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A8] - Curviinear pattern suggesting wrought-iron decoration; see also cat.no.36.

36       Untitled [A46] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A46] - Even more clearly than cat.no.35, this example prefigures Arkley’s later interest in suburban wrought-iron and flywire-door decorative patterns.

37       Untitled [A45] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A45] - Linear ovoid shapes.

38       Untitled [A28] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A28] - Springy linear patterns within rectangular fields.

39       Untitled [A47] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A47] - Ink lines springing up diagonally from left to right - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

40       Untitled [A33] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A33] - A spikier variant of cat.no.39; here, the diagonals are reminiscent of razor wire.

41      Untitled [A9] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A9] - Composition based on a coiled line springing from the lower left. See also next entry.

42      Untitled [A4] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A4] - Spring form in thick black ink; see also previous entry - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

43      Untitled [A85] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A85] - Fragmented shapes, faintly outlined in pencil.

44      Untitled [A95] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A95] - Fragmented shapes, outlined in ink.

45      Untitled [A2] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A2] - Fragmented ink outlines, crossed by a diagonal line.

46      Untitled [A87] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & conte on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A87] - Fragmented shapes drawn in black conte, with two crossing diagonal lines and a rectangular frame.

47      Untitled [A13] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A13] - Line-drawing in ink, showing outlined organic shapes against a grid, with diagonal hatching.

48      Untitled [A51] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A51] - Line-drawing in ink, with curving shapes and three circles.

49      Untitled [A23] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A23] - Ink drawing showing curving lines in contrasting movement, possibly suggesting water.

50      Untitled [A7] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A7] - Ink line-drawing showing what looks like a stylized landscape.

51      Untitled [A32] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A32] - Ink drawing comprising outlined circles and lines.

52      Untitled [A211] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A211] - Outlined circles and lines, in this case in several differently-coloured inks. For the parallel introduction of primary colours into the largely monochrome realm of Arkley’s ‘white’ canvases around 1975-6, see e.g. Organic Model G (Black Square) [Tolarno] 1976.

53      Untitled [A17] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A17] - Black ink drawing, showing a stylized landscape in outine form.

54      Untitled [A37] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A37] - A development on the minimal stylized landscape in cat.no.53, here with several ‘tree’ forms either with detailed linear patterning or in solid black.

55      Untitled [A11] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A11] - Stylized leaf forms in black ink outline. For a very similar variant, see cat.no.56. Among several other examples featuring leaves, see e.g.cat.no.64.

56      Untitled [A48] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A48] - Stylized leaf forms, closely related to cat.no.55.

57      Untitled [A34] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A34] - Two organic forms in black ink, with some added body-colour.

58      Untitled [A3] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A3] - A ‘finished’ drawing showing two organic shapes freely painted in black ink (over underlying geometric forms).

59      Untitled [A78] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Conte on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A78] - The sequence of repeated short vertical marks looks something like a roughly chiselled patch of stone-work. See also cat.no.60, also predominantly in crayon.

60      Untitled [A79] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, conte & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A79] - Here, the crayon marks resemble a contour map. There is a faint overspray of coloured paint, mostly blue and yellow.

61       Untitled [A80] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A80] - This sketch of ribbon-like forms is one of a series of freely drawn sheets: see also cat.nos.62-68.

62      Untitled [A83] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A83] - Sketchy organic forms in black ink. Here, the pencil framing line demarcates a tall narrow pictorial field.

63      Untitled [A82] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A82] - Sketchy organic forms in pencil. Again, the pictorial field is tall and narrow, as also in cat.nos.62, 64 and 67.

64      Untitled [A84] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A84] - Sketchy leaf form in pencil, in the tall format also used for cat.no.62 and several other examples.

65      Untitled [A89] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A89] - Another freely drawn sketch of a leaf, in faint pencil.

66      Untitled [A88] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Conte (?) on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A88] - Intertwining branch-like forms, drawn in black crayon, with some areas of shading.

67      Untitled [A81] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A81] - Sketchy, track-like marks in black ink, in a tall pictorial field (outlined in pencil), similar to that used in cat.no.62 and several other examples.

68      Untitled [A86] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A86] - Linear pattern with sketchy, twig-like marks in black ink.

69      Untitled [A26] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A26] -  A highly finished example from the artist’s own collection, featuring monochrome body colour. The image seems to suggest a landscape or tree form - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

70      Untitled [A63] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & black fibre-tipped pen on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A63] - The imagery relates to the imaginary ‘critters’ Arkley developed several years earlier (see in particular his early 1970s Sketchbooks). An undated archive slide documents this work, which is difficult to place in the sequence of Arkley’s other ‘white’ drawings.

71      Untitled [archive slide #4] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - The sole source is an unlabelled slide in Arkley’s archive (reproduced here); it is uncertain whether this work still exists. The contrast between linear and sprayed areas typifies a number of other ‘white’ works on paper and paintings on canvas.

72      Untitled [A52] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A52] - ‘White’ drawing shown in the 2006-7 Arkley retrospective. The black sprayed arrow forms have a diagrammatic character - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

73      Untitled [A56] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A56] - Two black triangular forms (one solid, the other made up of sprayed dots) over a linear armature.

74      Untitled [archive slide #5] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - Four sprayed verticals with kinky curves occupy the centre of the composition. Arkley’s unlabelled slide presumably but not certainly shows the whole image. See also cat.no.71 etc.

75      Untitled [archive slide #6] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - A series of cascading black ‘waves’ sprayed over vertical ink lines. This looks similar to cat.no.76.

76      Untitled [A59] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3. Inscribed in pencil, outside image, l.l.: ‘Note give spray line more character’; and u.r. (upside down): ‘angle wrong’ [A59] - Cascading black sprayed waves over a background of ink verticals. There is also an unlabelled slide of this work in Arkley’s archive. Cat.no.75, known only from an archive slide, looks similar.

77      Untitled [A54] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A54] - Here, branching lines are embellished with black spray infill.

78      Untitled [A55] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A55] - An elegant sheet in which a curving linear pattern is overlaid with areas of black spray. As with cat.no.77, there seems to be a hint of plant forms here.

79      Untitled [A58] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A58] - Here, heavy black sprayed lines surround finely-drawn groups of twig-like forms - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

80      Untitled [Monash 8.3] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - Identifiable via a general installation photo taken in 1991 for the Monash Visual Arts slide collection. The formal motif is comparable with other ‘white’ drawings, e.g. cat.no.117, and with the early door-format canvas Leaves 1978 -   Exhibited: ‘HA: Howard Arkley’, Monash University Gallery, Oct.-Nov.1991, cat.8 (#3)

81       Untitled [Monash 8.5] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.22.5 x 15 (imae), 31.5 x 22.5 (sheet). Coll.: unknown - Identifiable via general installation photo taken for Monash VA slide collection. In this unusual example, twig-like linear forms occupy an ovoid field - Exhibited: ‘HA: Howard Arkley’, Monash University Gallery, Oct.-Nov.1991, cat.8 (#5)

82       Untitled [A74] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A74] - Outlined rectangle, freely over-sprayed in black. The same idea of ‘cancelled’ shapes or lines recurs in a number of other ‘white’ drawings, e.g.cat.no.83.

83       Untitled [A53] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A53] - One of the ‘white’ drawings shown in the 2006-7 Arkley retrospective. Here, two areas of heavily sprayed black paint almost completely obliterate linear forms below - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

84       Study for Actuality [A93] (1974) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 22.5 x 15 (image), c.31.8 x 25.3 (sheet) [A93] - This example, reproduced in Spray, is one of several works on paper dating from 1974-5, all closely related to the composition of Actuality (Is the Void Between Events) (1976). This one could be identical with cat.no.App.1, exhibited at Monash in 1991 but as yet unidentified - Exhibited: (possibly) ‘HA: Howard Arkley’, Monash University Gallery, Oct.-Nov.1991, cat. 6 (ii): see above - Lit.: Spray 16: ill. as ‘Study for Actuality (is the void between events)’, 1974 (size given as 22.5 x 15: image?)

85       Study for Actuality [Monash #1] (1974) [W/P]  SPP on paper, 41 x 31 {dimensions according to Deutscher & Hackett}. Coll.: unknown - One of two related works on paper shown in HA Monash 1991 (both from the artist’s collection): see also cat.no.App.1 (unidentified) - Prov.: sold at auction by Deutscher & Hackett, Melb., 26 Aug.2009, lot 87 (as c.1970; in mediocre condition) - Exhibited: ‘HA: Howard Arkley’, Monash University Gallery, Oct.-Nov.1991, cat. 6 (i)

86       Untitled [A75] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A75] - Another drawing related to Actuality (Is the Void Between Events) (1976), this example possibly identical with one of the otherwise unidentified Actuality studies exhibited during the 1990s – see e.g.cat.no.App.1. See also the two related but different examples also shown in the 2006-7 Arkley retrospective: cat.nos.87-88.

87       Untitled [A76] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.38.2 x 28 [A76] - Another ‘Actuality’ study. See also cat.no.88, also shown in the 2006-7 retrospective. In this particular example, the two sprayed lines fuse, and the central ‘void’ effectively disappears - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

88       Untitled [A92] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 28.3 x 23 [A92] - Also clearly related to Actuality (Is the Void Between Events) 1976; see also cat.nos.84-87 and 89 - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

89       Space Between Events (1975) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.25.5 x 32 (?). Coll.: unknown - In this ‘Actuality’ study, documented by an archive slide labelled with title and date as shown, the central space is accentuated by the horizontal format. For a comparable example, on a larger scale, see cat.no.162. It is actually unclear whether the present drawing was on a smaller or larger sheet, although the former seems more likely.

90       Untitled [Christie's] 1976 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.31.8 x 25.3; signed & dated 1976. Coll.: unknown - This drawing, which surfaced at auction in 2000, appears to be a typical early work on paper; for a related canvas, see Untitled [‘Abstract’] 1976 - Provenance: auctioned by Christie’s, Sydney, 13 Aug,2000, lot 35 (ill., details as shown).

91       Untitled [A77] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A77] – This composition, comprising sprayed and drawn lines, is reminiscent of several ‘white’ canvases, e.g. Stroke (1975). Several larger-scale ‘white’ drawings are also comparable, e.g. cat.no.210 (recto) - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

92       Untitled [A212] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.2. Inscribed in pencil (verso): ‘B’ [A212]          - One of several related works based on the idea of a contrast between sprayed and ruled verticals/diagonals: compare e.g. cat.nos.93 and 207.

93       Untitled [Monash 8.4] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.31.5 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - Elegant example shown at Monash in 1991. A slide of the work in Arkley’s archive is labeled 1976 and titled ‘Tracing’, possibly suggesting a relationship with the canvas shown in HA Tolarno 4/75 under that title: Tracing (1975?). See also Untitled [Sprayed and straight lines] (c.1975?) - Exhibited: ‘HA: Howard Arkley’, Monash University Gallery, Oct.-Nov.1991, cat. no.8 [#4]: as 22.5 x 15 (presumably, image size) - Literature: Duncan 1991 (Monash catalogue), p.19 (black and white reproduction)

94       Untitled [Monash 8.6] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.22.5 x 15 (image), 31.5 x 25.5 (sheet). Coll.: unknown - Identifiable via general installation photo taken for Monash VA slide collection in 1991. Here, as in various other works of this period, the central formal idea is the contrast between sprayed and drawn lines -   Exhibited: ‘HA: Howard Arkley’, Monash University Gallery, Oct.-Nov.1991, cat.no.8 [#6]: details as above

95       Oriental Line Study 1975 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.37 x 29.2; signed & dated l.r.: ‘Howard Arkley 75’ [A213] - Composition comprising sprayed wave-like verticals; possibly identical with cat.no.App.5, as shown in HA Tolarno 9/95 (unidentified). This work remained in the artist’s collection at his death (framed and titled on the back of the mount).

96       Untitled [A214] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & Letraset on paper, 30.3 x 37.5 [A214] - This sheet appears to have been prepared as a ‘title page’ for a set of Arkley’s smaller white drawings, although it is unclear whether he had any particular publication or exhibition in mind. The motif of repeated short sprayed strokes, often in fields separated by ruled lines, reappears in a number of other drawings from the period: see e.g. cat.no.97.

97       Untitled [W1] 1974 [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 30.3 x 37.8. Inscribed in pencil, lower margin: ‘First Second group of studies 1974. Nearly all other examples lost destored {sic} not sold / must keep for myself’ [W1] - Typical ‘white’ drawing, with short sprayed lines grouped in bunches. The inscription identifies this work as from a series dating from 1974. There is a slide in Arkley’s archive - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

98       Untitled ['The Orient' variant] 1976 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.5 x 25.5. Signed & dated l.r.: ‘Howard Arkley 76’. Coll.: unknown - This elegant work was exhibited at Monash in 1991, and then auctioned by Deutscher-Menzies in 2000 as ‘Study for White Painting’. A slide in Arkley’s archive is labeled ‘The Orient 1975′               – Exhibited: ‘HA: Howard Arkley’, Monash University Gallery, Oct.-Nov.1991, cat.no.8 [#9] – Literature: Duncan 1991 (HA Monash exh.cat.), p.19 (ill., oriented sideways, with top to left)

99       Study for Oriental Wave Study #1 [A94] (1974) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5 [A94] - One of several works on paper related to the major early white canvas Oriental (Wave Study) 1974 [aka Second Tracing]; see also next entry - Literature: Spray 18 (ill., details as shown): as 22.5 x 15 (presumably, image size).

100      Study for Oriental Wave Study #2 (1974) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown -   Auctioned in 2002, noting its similarity to cat.no.99, as reproduced in Spray. Possibly identical with cat.no.App.5 (exhibited at Tolarno in 1995, but unidentified) - Provenance: auctioned by Deutscher-Menzies, Melb., 28-23 Aug.2002, lot 141 (ill.; details as above).

101      Untitled [A215] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5 [A215] - Another sheet related to Oriental (Wave Study) 1974 [aka Second Tracing]. Either this drawing or cat.no.99 may be identical with the unidentified work shown in Arkley’s ‘White + Black’ exhibition in 1995: see cat.no.App.5.

102      Untitled [A114] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.31.8 x 25.3 [A114] - Short sprayed vertical strokes in two columns; see also several early canvases, notably Recording (wave study) 1976 (exh. HA Coventry 5/77) - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

103      Untitled [A70] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A70] - Sprayed dots over a curvilinear pattern. This drawing and cat.nos.104-5 prefigure several of Arkley’s later canvases, notably Futurist with Dots (1979) and The Proton Neutron 1980- Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

104      Untitled [A71] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3; Inscribed below image, l.l.: ‘Howard Arkley 95-97’ [A71] - Sprayed dots over a curvilinear pattern, similar to previous entry. The inscription – added later? – presumably means 1975-77. This work is closely comparable with the central panel of cat.no.260: The Three Notations 1978.

105      Untitled [A72] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A72] - Another compostion combining sprayed dots with a curvilinear pattern. This work compares not only with cat.nos.103-4, but also with the curving linear shapes in cat.no.14.

106      Untitled [A57] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A57] - A heavy concentration of sprayed black dots over an underlying twig-like linear pattern comparable with cat.no.5.

107      A Pair of Leaves 1975 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Signed & dated l.r.: ‘HA.75’. Coll.: unknown - Drawing auctioned in April 1999; presumably identical with the work shown under this title in Arkley’s ‘White + Black’ exhibition in 1995 – Provenance: auctioned by Deutscher-Menzies, 25-26 April 1999 (lot 248; ill., details as shown) - Exhibited: (?) ‘Howard Arkley: White + Black’, Tolarno Galleries, Melbourne, Sept.1995, cat.no.14 (as ‘A Pair of Leaves 1975’; size given as 23 x 17 {image?}; no photo)

108      Untitled ['Spots'] 1978 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 45 x 34.5. Signed & dated l.r.: ‘Howard Arkley 78’. Coll.: unknown - This work appeared at auction in 2001. The tonal variations of the sprayed dots may be compared with a number of Arkley’s later door-format canvases, e.g. Isotype 1979 and Secession 1979 [aka Coils]. See also Untitled [study for Muzak Mural] 1981 [W/P], a later variant of the ‘white’ works on paper, reproduced in the catalogue for Wall Painting (Muzak Mural) (1981) [3/M] - Provenance: auctioned by Christie’s, Melb., 3 April 2001 (lot 9, as ‘Untitled (Spots)’; details as shown)

109      Untitled [archive slide #2] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - One of several related examples showing meandering sprayed black lines, this work is known only via an undated archive slide: see also cat.no.110.

110      Untitled [archive slide #3] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP and ink (with collage?) on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - Another example known only via an unlabelled archive slide (see also cat.no.109). Here, heavy black lines appear to have been sprayed over fine linear patterns, possibly with the addition of some collaged elements.

111      Untitled [A216] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A216] - Spiky linear curves with sprayed infill. One of several related examples, one dated 1977: cat.no.115.

112      Untitled [A65] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A65] - The curvilinear monochrome patterning in this drawing, shown in the Arkley retrospective in 2006-7, prefigures later compositions such as Arabesque 1979 [aka Curvilinear] and Baroque (1979) - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

113      Untitled [A66] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A66] - One of several related examples combining curvilinear patterning with areas of black sprayed paint: see cat.nos.114-115 (the latter dated 1977).

114      Untitled [A67] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A67] - One of the ‘white’ drawings shown in the 2006-7 Arkley retrospective, comprising wave-like patterns of drawn and sprayed lines - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

115      Untitled [A68] 1977 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 318 x 25.3. Signed & dated l.l.: ‘Howard Arkley 1977’ [A68] - Another drawing based on the interplay between drawn and sprayed lines. Several similar examples are extant in the artist’s studio collection, e.g. cat.no.114. See also cat.no.123.

116      Untitled [Monash 8.2] 1976 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Signed & dated l.r.: ‘Howard Arkley 76’. Coll.: unknown - Work known only through an indistinct installation photo taken at Monash in 1991. The twig-like forms are characteristic of several other ‘white’ works on paper: see e.g. cat.no.117 - Exhibited: ‘HA: Howard Arkley’, Monash University Gallery, Oct.-Nov.1991, cat.no.8 (#2): size given as 22.5 x 15 (image?)

117      Untitled [UQ 1] 1977 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Signed & dated l.l.: ‘Howard Arkley 1977’. University of Queensland, Art Collection (donated in 2000) - One of two related works donated to UQ in 2000 (size given as 26.6 x 18 {image?}); see also following entry. Possibly identical with cat.no.App.3 (unidentified).

118      Untitled [UQ 2] 1977 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Signed & dated l.l.: ‘Howard Arkley 1977’. University of Queensland, Art Collection (donated in 2000) - Another typical early work on paper, showing branching lines with sprayed ‘aura’; comments as for previous entry. This work may be identical with cat.no.App.9 (unidentified).

119      Containing Seeds (1975) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - The sole source is a photo in Arkley’s archive, inscribed on the reverse by Arkley with this title and date. Listed in Spray research notes c.1996 as on canvas, but it looks more like other works on paper from this period (e.g. cat.nos.120, 124-5). However, much remains unclear about this work, including even whether it still exists.

120      Untitled [Monash 8.1] 1975 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Signed & dated l.l.: ‘Howard Arkley 1975’. Coll.: unknown - This drawing features meandering drawn and sprayed lines; for a colour version, also shown at Monash in 1991, see cat.no.124 - Exhibited: ‘HA: Howard Arkley’, Monash University Gallery, Oct.-Nov.1991, cat.no.8 (#1): size given as 22.5 x 15 (image?)

121      Untitled [A62] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A62] - Elaborate series of shard-like masked sprayed areas - Exhibited: Arkley retrospective, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 2006-7 (‘Studies 1974’)

122      Organic Model Study 1977 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.31.8 x 25.3. Signed & dated l.r.: ‘HA.77’ [A217] - Work on paper closely related to several paintings from 1976-77, e.g. Organic Model F (Liquid) (1976). See also cat.nos.237-239 - Exhibited: ‘Howard Arkley: White + Black’, Tolarno Galleries, Melbourne, Sept.1995, cat.no.15, as 23 x 17 {image size?}

123      Untitled [Christie's] 1977 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.31.8 x 25.3. Signed & dated l.l.: ‘Howard Arkley 1977’ (acc.to Christie’s). Coll.: unknown - This drawing looks similar to other works on paper from the period, e.g. cat.no.115, and is also closely comparable with Soft Nouveau (1978) - Provenance: auctioned by Christie’s, Sydney, 13 Aug.2000, lot 34 (ill., details as shown here; size given as 23.2 x 15.5 {image?})

124      Untitled [Monash 8.8] 1975 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Signed & dated l.l.: ‘Howard Arkley 1975’ [A69] - An early example of Arkley’s experimentation with coloured sprayed line; exhibited in HA Monash 1991, together with related examples: cat.nos.120 and 128. There are also slides in Arkley’s archive - Exhibited: ‘HA: Howard Arkley’, Monash University Gallery, Oct.-Nov.1991, cat.no.8 (#8: 22.5 x 15 {image?})

125      Untitled [archive slide #20] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP, ink & collage on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - The only source is an unlabelled slide in the artist’s archive, and it is unclear whether this work still exists. Coloured lines, in both ink and sprayed paint, appear to have been overlaid with pieces of translucent blue paper. Arkley’s archive also contains a black and white slide of the same work.

126      Untitled [archive slide #23] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - Again, the sole source is an unlabelled slide in Arkley’s archive (see also cat.nos.125 etc.). Here, dark red and yellow spray emphasizes elements of a linear composition.

127      Untitled [archive slide #22] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - Linear composition with sprayed colour, also known only through an unlabelled slide in Arkley’s archive (see cat.nos.125-6).

128      Untitled [Monash 8.7] 1976 [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - Red/blue/yellow abstract work, exhibited in the 1991 Arkley survey (visible in installation slide), together with a comparable work, cat.no.124. There is an undated slide in the artist’s archive - Exhibited: ‘HA: Howard Arkley’, Monash University Gallery, Oct.-Nov.1991, cat.no.8 (#7)

129      Untitled [A60] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A60] - Composition purely in red, blue and yellow sprayed paint (without linear components)

130      Untitled [A61] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & pencil on paper, 31.8 x 25.3 [A61] - Geometric shapes sprayed in red, blue and yellow.

131      Untitled [archive slide #19] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP on paper, c.25.5 x 32. Coll.: unknown - Another work known only from an unlabelled slide in Arkley’s archive, apparently composed entirely in spray paint in primary colours.

132      Untitled [archive slide #17] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c. 25.5 x 32. Coll.: unknown - Another coloured work known only from an archive slide. In this more elaborate example, the black pen shapes include an outlined circle and five horizontal lines reminiscent of a music stave (compare cat.no.224 [verso]).

133      Untitled [archive slide #18] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.25.5 x 32. Coll.: unknown - Again, as with several other examples mostly comprising sprayed paint in primary colours, a slide in Arkley’s archive is the sole source. The intended orientation is uncertain.

134      Untitled [archive slide #21] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP, ink & collage on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - In this example, also known only via an archive slide, elements of coloured paper appear to have been added, as in cat.no.125.

135      Untitled [archive slide #24] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.32 x 25.5. Coll.: unknown - Outlined squares with black and coloured spray paint, This work, again known only via an archive slide (possibly a detail), may have been larger in scale.

 

(ii) Cat.nos.136-184: medium-scale sheets (almost all measuring c.38 x 56 cm [c.15” x 22”])

136      Untitled [W3] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [W3] - Diagrammatic drawing comprising black dots and lines. The linear pattern is related to that used in cat.no.137, and several other sheets.

137      Untitled [W5] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 38.4 x 56.4 [W5] - Series of overlapping linear shapes, drawn in variously coloured inks. The effect is something like a clothing pattern; see also cat.no.138.

138      Untitled [A129] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Fibre-tipped pen on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A129] - Even more than the previous entry, this drawing is reminiscent of a clothing pattern. Unusually, this sheet is drawn entirely in fibre-tipped pen, in primary colours.

139      Untitled [W11] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 38 x 56.4 [W11] - A minimal drawing comprising a cluster of organic linear shapes and a patch of black ink spatter.

140      Untitled [W10] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [W10] - Elegant sheet with black outlined squares and ink spatter. Comparable with several of Arkley’s minimal canvases from the mid 70s, e.g. Operations, Notch, Trim 1975.

141       Untitled [W12] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [W12] - The black sprayed boxes to the left are contrasted with the ink-outlined compartments with ink spatter to the right.

142      Untitled [A133] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A133]  - Gridded square with sprayed dots in the upper right section of the sheet, which is otherwise empty.

143      Untitled [W7] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [W7] - This sheet and cat.no.144 appear to form a mirrored pair, featuring contrasting ruled/sprayed lines/crosses.

144      Untitled [W8] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [W8] - Black sprayed crosses with ruled verticals. Evidently a matching pair for the previous entry.

145      Untitled [A139] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A139] - In this minimal drawing, in very good condition, two prominent black lines, geometric and sprayed. echo each other.

146      Untitled [A120] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A120] - The ink and sprayed lines seem to suggest some type of structure here.

147      Untitled [A128] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A128] - A series of contrasting black lines, drawn and sprayed; several look like seismographic or heart monitor readings.

148      Untitled [A122] (c.1974-75) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A122] - An experiment in configuring four vertical elements differently, shown in the 2006 Arkley retrospective - Exhibited: HA NGVA 2006-7 (as ‘Untitled 1974-75’)

149      Untitled [A123] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A123] - Zig-zagging patterns in ink and sprayed lines. The effect is something like a plan or aerial view of fortifications.

150      Untitled [A125] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A125] - This composition in ink, wash and spray paint resembles a plan of an ancient archaeological site.

151      Untitled [A135] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A135] - This image, looking something like a diagrammatic town plan, is cited in Carnival in Suburbia as typical of Arkley’s early formal approach, using the airbrush ‘to point up a specific contrast between different qualities of line and pattern: precise vs.fuzzy, assertive vs.vague’ - Literature: Gregory, Carnival in Suburbia (2006), p.92 and Fig.3.6

152      Untitled [A153] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 38.5 x 56.6 [A153] - Sketchy forms with a black rectangle. The latter motif recurs in several other early works on paper and canvas: see e.g. the next entry and Organic Model G (Black Square) [Tolarno] 1976.

153      Untitled [A121] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A121] - The overall sense of this elaborate drawing is of a collection or inventory of different formal motifs; compare for example Inventory [Wesfarmers] 1976. In this particular case, most of the paper is used, rather than a smaller rectangular field outlined in pencil, as in most other works in this series. Some of the line-work is in coloured ink.

154      Untitled [A131] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A131] - This interesting, finely-detailed work includes a cut-out rectangle, possibly intended to contain a collaged element.

155      Untitled [A124] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A124] - The orientation of this drawing, comprising contrasting solid grey and black sprayed areas, is uncertain – as with a number of the other sheets in Arkley’s studio collection. Arkley’s archive contains a slide of this work.

156      Untitled [A127] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 38.3 x 56.5 [A127] - An elaborate composition including some components in colour, notably prominent blue and yellow squares; compare e.g. Organic Model G (Black Square) [Tolarno] 1976. This sheet appears to be unfinished.

157      Untitled [archive slide #14] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.38.5 x 56.5. Coll.: unknown - The size of this work, known only from an Arkley archive slide, is uncertain. However, it appears to relate to other mid-size sheets such as cat.no.153.

158      Untitled [W9] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 37.9 x 56.2 [W9] - Roughly sprayed oblongs are contrasted here with an outlined rectangle.

159      Untitled [A143] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A143] - The ‘organic’ style of this sheet and cat.no.160 relates to a number of the canvases Arkley exhibited in 1976-77, notably Organic Model F (Liquid) (1976) (oriented vertically). There is a slide of this sheet in Arkley’s archive.

160      Untitled [A132] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 38.5 x 56.4 [A132] - Another ‘organic’ drawing related to Organic Model F (Liquid) (1976) and other canvases Arkley exhibited in 1976-77. Some of the line-work here is in coloured ink. See also cat.no.159.

161      Untitled [A138] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A138] - Intricate drawing comparable with several other ‘organic’ abstracts of 1976-77: e.g. Organic Model (Intuitive Reason) (1976). Possibly identical with one of the unidentified works shown in Arkley’s 1995 Tolarno exhibition, e.g. cat.no.App.11 - Exhibited: HA NGVA 2006-7 (as ‘Untitled 1974-75’)

162      Untitled [A142] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A142] - Another ‘Actuality’ study; however, by comparison with most of the smaller work-on-paper versions of this composition (see e.g. cat.no.84), this example is horizontal in format, thus accentuating the ‘void between’, as in the related canvas Actuality (Is the Void Between Events) 1976. Tape on the back suggests that this drawing may have been mounted and exhibited at some stage.

163      Untitled [A145] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 38.4 x 56.4 [A145] - Another drawing related to Arkley’s key ‘white’ painting Actuality (Is the Void Between Events) 1976. Here, however, there are three sprayed/linear areas and a smaller, finely-detailed version above. The intended orientation of this sheet is uncertain, but a vertical format seems more logical, given other comparable examples such as cat.no.162.

164      Untitled [A144] (c.1984-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 37.9 x 56.2 [A144] - One of several drawings based on the same general idea of short sprayed strokes of varying weight – see e.g. cat.nos.97 and 165. This sheet appears to have been mounted at some stage.

165      Untitled [A137] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 38.5 x 56.4 [A137] - Groups of short sprayed strokes in four columns. Cat.no.116 is obviously related.

166      Untitled [A119] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A119] - In this drawing, clearly related to the previous entry, the rows of short sprayed strokes are matched by rhythmically spaced short vertical lines. Arkley’s archive contains a slide showing a detail.

167      Untitled [A115] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56.5 x 38 [A115] - Short sprayed strokes in three columns. Here (by comparison with other related examples such as cat.no.165, there are fewer strokes, and some are very lightly applied. The intended orientation of this sheet is uncertain, but a vertical format may be deduced from its similarity to cat.no.170. See also next entry.

168       Untitled [archive slide #1] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP, ink (?) & pencil on paper, c.56.5 x 38.5. Coll.: unknown - This example, known only from an unlabelled slide in Arkley’s archive, shows short sprayed strokes in three columns. It is evidently related to cat.no.167 and several other similar sheets.

169       Untitled [W13 (i)] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56.3 x 38 [W13 (left)] - Short sprayed strokes with two vertical lines. There is an obvious relationship with several other ‘white’ drawings based on the same formal idea, e.g. cat.no.164. Exhibited in 1988, together with cat.nos.170-71 as part of Untitled [‘White Painting’]; and source material (1988 and earlier) [W/P]. This drawing and cat.no.170 are preserved together on a sheet of clear plastic – Exhibited: ‘HA: Casual Works’, Melbourne & Brisbane 1988: ‘White Painting’ ensemble.

170      Untitled [W13 (ii)] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56.3 x 38 [W13 (right)] - Sprayed horizontals arranged into three columns. Again, there is an obvious relationship with several other ‘white’ drawings, particularly cat.no.167. Shown in 1988, with cat.nos.169 and 171, as part of Untitled [‘White Painting’]; and source material (1988 and earlier) [W/P]. Preserved in the artist’s collection with cat.no.169, on a sheet of clear plastic - Exhibited: ‘HA: Casual Works’, Melbourne & Brisbane 1988: ‘White Painting’ ensemble.

171      Untitled [W14] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56.3 x 38 [W14] - Third related work shown in Arkley’s ‘Casual Works’ exhibition in 1988: see cat.nos.160-70. This example is also affixed (separately) to clear plastic - Exhibited: ‘HA: Casual Works’, Melbourne & Brisbane 1988: in ‘White Painting’ ensemble

172      Untitled [W4] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56.3 x 38. Inscribed in pencil l.r.: ‘leave corners’ (with arrow) [W4] - Composition comprising two sprayed rectangles. This example, and cat.nos.173-4, may all be compared with several ‘white’ canvases, notably Untitled [Three sprayed rectangles] (c.1975-6?). The inscription on the present drawing suggests a vertical format.

173      Untitled [A218] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56.3 x 38.4 [A218] - This drawing, comprising two sprayed rectangles in the lower half of the sheet, is very similar to the previous example.

174      Untitled [A141] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 38.3 x 56.2 [A141] - This example is closely comparable with Untitled [Sprayed rectangular fields] (c.1975-6?), a work documented only by a slide in Arkley’s archive. In each case, the right half of the composition is void. Here, the sprayed areas are quite elaborately treated.

175      Untitled [archive slide #12] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP, ink & pencil on paper, c.38.5 x 56.5. Coll.: unknown - Rectangular composition divided into several small fields. Once again, the sole source is a slide in Arkley’s archive. The original size and orientation are uncertain.

176      Untitled [A136] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A136] - In this meticulously-detailed drawing, a series of small geometric elements, some with sprayed detail, are arranged in eight rows. The overall impression is of something like a mechanical diagram or code.

177      Untitled (c.1975-6) [W/P?]  (presumably) SPP on paper (?), {size unknown}. Coll.: unknown - The sole source, Arkley’s file slide (with process date Oct78), leaves it unclear whether this was a work on canvas or paper. There is a clear stylistic relationship with the canvas Untitled [Five stripes] (c.1975-6), for which this may have been a preparatory study.

178      Pauses (Interchronic) (1976) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 39.8 x 29.6 (present size) [A219] - This work has been cut down from its original form: Arkley’s undated file slide shows the work in a larger, horizontally-oriented state, with a third component to the right. Originally, the sheet presumably measured c.39.8 x 56.5, by analogy with other works on paper from c.1974-8: see e.g. cat.no.179. This work may have been shown at Tolarno 9/95, in cut-down state, under a different title. – Exhibited: (possibly) HA Tolarno 9/95 (see comments above)

179      Untitled [A134] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 38.5 x 56.3 [A134] - Six elongated fields with linear detail in both black and red ink. The intended orientation of this elegant drawing is uncertain.

180      Vowel Formats [A126] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56.5 x 38.5. Titled in pencil in capitals below image; also inscribed in pencil to left of image: {details to check} [A126] - An elaborate drawing including both sprayed and finely drawn areas in black, and some limited use of primary colour. The inscriptions clearly indicate a vertical orientation.

181      Untitled [A220] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, crayon & ink on paper, 56.5 x 38.5 [A220] - One of the larger early works on paper shown in the 2006-7 Arkley retrospective. Here, a number of the vertical crayon strokes are surrounded by a sprayed ‘aura’ – a motif Arkley also used for his door-format painting Leaves 1978 - Exhibited: HA NGVA 2006-7 (as ‘Untitled 1974-75’)

182      Untitled [W2] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & pencil on paper, 56.5 x 38.3. Inscribed {details to check} [W2] - The framed section of this sketch-like drawing shows several jagged shapes in coloured pencil, with some sprayed shading. A smaller outlined shape appears above, in red pencil. The inscription implies a vertical orientation.

183      Untitled [A130] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & pencil on paper, 38.5 x 56.5 [A130] - Curvilinear pattern at the left with sprayed and solid shading, and several outlined circles. Most of the pictorial area is blank, suggesting that this sheet may be unfinished.

184      Untitled [A221] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 34.2 x 51.3 [A221] – This composition comprises six square panels with small ink line-drawings, including some refined sprayed detail. The sheet is unusual in size and format, suggesting a type of experiment or model.

 

(iii) Nos. 185-260: Larger-scale works, typically c.56 x 76 (some larger)

185      Untitled [W41] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 56 x 76.2 [W41] - A quirky, Klee-like series of small quasi-mechanical drawings. The double circle is in blue ink (the rest are in black). Excellent work in very good condition.

186      Untitled [archive slide #15] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) ink on paper, c.56 x 76.2. Coll.: unknown - One of a pair of sketchy line-drawings known only from archive slides (see also next entry). The size is uncertain, but a larger scale seems to be implied.

187      Untitled [archive slide #16] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) ink on paper, c.56 x 76.2. Coll.: unknown - Second sketchy drawing known via archive slide; see comments on previous entry.

188      Untitled [W15] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 50.8 x 76.2 [W15] - A sketchy composition on thin paper, with a patch of blue paint to the left; the sheet is somewhat discoloured towards the left margin. See also the next entry.

189      Untitled [W16] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Crayon & ink on paper, 50.8 x 76.2 [W16] - A pair for the previous work, although here crayon (rather than spray paint) is used to indicate shading over outlined circles. This sheet is in rather poor condition, although the pictorial field, demarcated in pencil, is relatively clean and un-creased.

190      Untitled [W49] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & collage on paper, 55.9 x 76.2 [W49] - Minimal work including a collaged grey square, apparently clipped from a magazine photograph. Arkley’s archive contains a slide.

191      Untitled [A155] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 56 x 77 [A155] - Outlined grey square with scratchy line-work. There is a slide of this drawing in Arkley’s archive; see also the next entry, a related work dated 1974.

192      Untitled [W29] 1974 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 42.8 x 68. S+d in pencil l.r., within image: ‘Howard Arkley 74’ [W29] - Grey square with sketchy line-work, close to the previous entry, although this sheet is slightly smaller, and a second outlined square (actually drawn on the verso) is clearly visible as a sort of echo of the first.

193      Untitled [A181] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 56 x 67.2 [A181] - Solid grey square with horizontal brush-strokes. One of a group of related works (see e.g. cat. no.202). The brush-strokes seem to be a gestural equivalent for the sprayed lines in white canvases such as Fast Lid 1974, and related drawings.

194      Untitled [A187] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 56 x 76.3 [A187] - Sweeping black horizontals and two circles outlined in red. The sprayed horizontals recall several white canvases by Arkley, notably Tracing (1975?), for which this could almost be a preliminary drawing. Arkley’s archive contains several slides.

195      Untitled [W25] 1975 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 46.8 x 71.5. S+d in pencil on verso: ‘Howard Arkley 75’ [W25] - Red circles with sprayed horizontals. A more refined variant of the same idea as the previous entry. Tape on the back suggests this work has been mounted.

196      Untitled [W59] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 56 x 76.2 [W59] - Double-sided drawing. The recto shows sprayed horizontals juxtaposed to a series of precisely drawn circles in red and blue. The verso is divided into two equal fields by pencil lines, and contains only two small solid blue painted squares.

197      Untitled [A188] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink on paper, 56 x 67.2 [A188] - Double-sided sheet. Both drawings are rather sketchy, and the sheet of paper is in mediocre condition. The recto again explores the motif of repeated horizontals.

198      Untitled [A189] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink (?) on paper, 56 x 67.2 [A189] - Horizontal ‘brush-stroke’. Both this and cat.no.199 appear to be monotype or transfer prints, possibly made by printing from pieces of wood.

199      Untitled [A190] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink (?) on paper, 56 x 67.2 [A190] - Horizontal image, apparently printed from wood; closely similar to previous entry (see comments on that work).

200      Untitled [W35] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 55.8 x 76.3 [W35] - Black square with blue sprayed marks and ink verticals, on the left half of the sheet (unfinished?).

201      Untitled [archive slide #10] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.55 x 67. Coll.: unknown - Black sprayed and drawn verticals, Work known only from an Arkley archive slide; presumed here to be larger scale, given its obvious relationship with cat.no.202 and related works.

202      Untitled [A182] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink and pencil on paper, 56 x 67.2 [A182] - Heavily sprayed black verticals over blue painted strokes. The motif of sprayed verticals is comparable with Stroke (1975) and other canvases of the period. Arkley’s archive contains an undated slide of this sheet.

203      Untitled [A183] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 56 x 67.2 [A183] - Three sprayed rectangles arranged vertically on the central axis of the sheet. The composition is broadly comparable with the white canvases Seltsamer [#1] (1974) and Seltsamer [#2] (1975). Arkley’s archive contains an undated slide of this sheet, indicating its horizontal orientation.

204      Untitled [A184] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56 x 67.2 [A184] - To the right of the central axis, black sprayed verticals are juxtaposed against circles outlined in red and blue ink. The composition is comparable with both Static/Dynamic Opposition (1974) and Tracing (1975?). There is an undated slide of this sheet in Arkley’s archive.

205      Untitled [W26] 1974 [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 41.8 x 66.7. S+d in pencil (twice) l.r.: ‘Howard Arkley 74’ [W26] - To the left of the sheet, black sprayed verticals, accentuated by spattered ink, cross a set of stacked outlined squares, in a variation of the Seltsamer motif (compare for example cat.no.203). The inscription and traces of mounting on the back suggest this work may have been exhibited at some stage.

206      Untitled [W30] 1974 [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 43.6 x 66.7. S+d in pencil l.r.: ‘Howard Arkley 74’ [W30] - Another variant of the composition used for Seltsamer [#1] (1974), with lightly sprayed verticals over three rectangles aligned on the central axis of the sheet. Unfortunately this sheet is in mediocre condition. Again, there are traces of a mount, suggesting it may have been exhibited.

207      Untitled [archive slide #8] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.56 x 67. Coll.: unknown - This impressive-looking work, featuring ruled verticals juxtaposed to sprayed lines sweeping down from the upper left, is known only via a slide in Arkley’s archive. It looks similar to several smaller ‘white’ works, e.g.cat.no.92. However, this work may have been on a larger scale.

208      Untitled [archive slide #13] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.56 x 67. Coll.: unknown - Two groups of sprayed and drawn verticals. Again, this work is known only via an archive slide, but is clearly related to extant examples: see e.g. next entry.

209      Untitled [W47] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56 x 72 [W47] - Larger drawing comprising two separate groups of sprayed and ruled verticals. Comparable with Stroke (1975) and a number of other ‘white’ works on paper, e.g. the next entry.

210      Untitled [W38] 1974 [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 55.8 x 76.2. S+d on verso, in pencil l.r.: ‘Arkley 74’ [W38] - The recto of this double-sided sheet is an elaborate composition comprising two sets of freely sprayed black verticals over finely-detailed lines; compare e.g. preceding entry, and Stroke (1975). The verso shows freely drawn horizontals, and circles in blue and red (compare e.g.cat.no.194).

211      Untitled [archive slide #11] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  (presumably) SPP & ink on paper, c.56 x 76. Coll.: unknown - Another work known only via unlabelled Arkley archive slide. This example shows two columnar forms in ink and sprayed paint. The assorted envelope shapes in the left-hand column compare with similar motifs in the ‘white’ canvas Untitled ['Five stripes'] (c.1975-6).

212      Untitled ['Poles'] 1976 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 39.5 x 63.5. S+d l.l.: ‘H Arkley 76’ (details noted in 2006). Coll.: unknown - This work, comprising three distinctly patterned vertical elements, looks characteristic of Arkley’s work on paper around 1976: compare e.g. cat.no.178 - Provenance: listed on ‘Look Art’ website, Melbourne, 2000 (as ‘Poles’); also noted in planning files for 2006 NGV Arkley retrospective.

213      Untitled [W31] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 55.9 x 76.4 [W31] - This composition is one of three brightly coloured and expressive large-scale drawings: see also cat.nos.214-215. This example uses both sprayed and wash paint as well as ink.

214      Untitled [W32] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP on paper, 55.8 x 76.3 [W32] - In this drawing, freely sprayed in yellow, green and blue paint, the horizontals are off-centred.

215      Untitled [W43] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP on paper, 55.8 x 76.5 [W43] - This drawing, freely sprayed in several colours, has the appearance of a test sheet.

216      Untitled [W52] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink and pencil on paper, 55.8 x 76.2 [W52] - An extremely minimal example, comprising atmospheric areas of black spray paint and a small geometric line-drawing to the right.

217      Untitled [W36] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56 x 76.3 [W36] - The recto of this double-sided sheet is dominated by sprayed lines and wave-like marks. Arkley’s archive contains a slide of this expressive drawing. The verso includes a sketchy composition in blue wash and black spray paint, and some rectangular boxes outlined in black ink.

218      Untitled [W50] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56 x 76.2. Inscribed in pencil on verso: ‘all spray’ [W50] - The recto of this double-sided sheet shows a triptych of freely-sprayed areas, with some black ink blots to the lower left. On the verso (unfinished?) is a small drawn and sprayed area, the annotation with an arrow pointing towards the centre of the image.

219      Untitled [W56] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56 x 76.2 [W56] - The intended orientation of this refined drawing, showing turbulent sprayed line-work in a rectangular area, is uncertain. Arkley’s archive contains an unlabelled slide.

220      Untitled [W42] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP on paper, 55.8 x 76.2 [W42] – The black ink form has a black sprayed aura, and added sprayed detail in white; unfortunately, the sheet is somewhat discoloured.

221      Untitled [W53] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56 x 76.2 [W53] - Here, heavy black spray fills most of a circular form located slightly to the right of centre. A series of horizontal pencil lines has been ruled over the centre of the sprayed form.

222      Untitled [W48] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & pencil on paper, 56 x 76.2 [W48] - An unusual example in which a mechanical form, thinly drawn in pencil, is juxtaposed to a small oval area marked by bright colour and and black sprayed paint. There is a black and white slide of this sheet in Arkley’s archive.

223      Untitled [W27] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 45.7 x 76.2 [W27] - An elegant composition comprising three sets of vertical lines in black or coloured ink, each delicately emphasised with black spray paint.

224      Untitled [A185] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 56 x 67.2 [A185] -   The recto of this double-sided sheet, exhibited in the 2006-7 Arkley retrospective, shows two rectangles filled with heavy black sprayed patterning. The verso includes an area resembling musical notation, mentioned in Carnival in Suburbia in relation to Arkley’s early interest in music, as reflected by his notebooks c.1975 - Exhibited: HA NGVA 2006-7 (as Untitled 1974-5; recto shown) - Literature: Gregory, Carnival in Suburbia (2006), p.119 and Fig.4.13 (verso: as ‘Untitled, c.1975’)

225      Untitled [A186] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, c.56 x 67.2 [A186] - A refined work comprising a series of diagrammatic shapes with various types of black ink and sprayed detailing. This drawing has no particular work-on-canvas equivalent.

226      Untitled [W45] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 59.4 x 84.1 [W45] - An unusually freely drawn, sprayed and painted composition on a large-scale sheet.

227      Untitled [A191] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink, crayon & Letraset on paper, 56 x 76. [A191] - One of the two large-format white drawings shown in the Arkley retrospective in 2006-7: see also cat.no.224. This example is notable for its complexity of composition and technique, using sprayed lines, wash areas, crayon, pen and added numbers in various monochrome combinations. There are slides of this work in the artist’s archive - Exhibited: HA NGVA 2006-7: as ‘Untitled, 1974-6’

228      Untitled [W40] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 57.8 x 76.2 [W40] - This large sheet, showing only two sprayed rectangles to the left, is comparable with several medium-scale drawings: see e.g. cat.no.173. There are also a number of related canvases, e.g. Untitled [Three sprayed rectangles] (c.1975-6?).

229      Untitled [W37] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 57.8 x 76.3 [W37] - This large sheet shows four sprayed rectangles, arranged in a line, end to end. Arkley’s archive contains a slide of this work. See also previous entry and comparative works noted there.

230      Winter Notations 1975 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 49.4 x 73; s+d in pencil l.r.: Howard Arkley 75’; also inscribed in pencil on verso: ‘Name  Howard Arkley / Address  72 Essex Rd Surrey Hills 3129 / Title  Winter Notations / Price $100.00’ [A222] - This elaborate, well preserved drawing was submitted for the Minnie Crouch Prize, Ballarat Fine Art Gallery, 1975. See also the series of large-format variants of this composition dateable 1974-76: cat.nos.231-234 below. Winter Notations 1975, a large white canvas possibly exhibited at Tolarno in 1975, is based on a different composition made up of groups of short sprayed lines - Exhibited: Ballarat Fine Art Gallery, July-Sept.1975 (Minnie Crouch Exhibition), cat.3

231      Untitled [W57] 1975 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 56 x 76.2; s+d in pencil l.r.: ‘Howard Arkley 75’ [W57] - One of a sequence of studies all related to Winter Notations 1975 [W/P] (previous entry). This example, while lightly-sprayed, is large-scale and quite elegantly detailed, and the inscribed signature and date suggest that it may have been exhibited at some stage.

232      Untitled [A154] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 43 x 68.2 [A154] - Slightly smaller but more detailed variant of Winter Notations 1975 [W/P] (cat.no.230; see also cat.nos. 231 and 233-234).

233      Untitled [Winter Notations variant] 1974 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 45.2 x 69.9; s+d in pencil l.l.: ‘H.Arkley 74’; also s+d in pencil on verso: ‘Howard Arkley 75’ [A223] - This example, closely related to Winter Notations 1975 [W/P], is extant in a mount stamped 1979, possibly indicating that it may have been exhibited around that time. Unfortunately, this work is in mediocre condition, including some silver-fish damage. The date inscribed on the front is preferred here to that on the back (where Arkley’s hand-writing suggests the inscription may have been added later).

234      Untitled [Winter Notations variant] 1976 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 81.5 x 62 (sheet), 73 x 52.7 (image); s+d in pencil on verso: ‘Howard Arkley 76’; also inscribed ‘TOP’ on verso at upper margin [A224] - The most spectacular of the group of variations of Winter Notations 1975 [W/P] (cat.no.230), and one of the largest of Arkley’s white drawings. The vertical orientation shown here is indicated by the inscriptions on the back. This fine work is in excellent condition.

235      Untitled [archive slide #7] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil (?) on paper, size unknown. Coll.: unknown - This work, known only through an Arkley archive slide, appears to have been a large experimental work or test sheet, apparently almost square, although the exact size is uncertain. Clearly related to other drawings such as Winter Notations 1975 [W/P] and its several variants (cat.nos.230-234).

236      Untitled [W19] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 45.8 x 76 [W19] - This large double-sided sheet appears to contain several experimental or test drawings. The recto is dominated by a series of black sprayed floral forms. The verso contains two smaller sketches: a composition including four lines sprayed in red paint, and a small ink drawing.

237      Untitled [A225] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 70.3 x 46 [A225] - Larger-scale drawing clearly related to Arkley’s ‘organic’ canvases and works on paper dating from c.1976-7: see e.g. cat.no.238 below. This example, which features two central outlined triangular forms, may be unfinished.

238      Untitled [A226] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 75.1 x 45 [A226] - Like the previous entry, this drawing is obviously related to Arkley’s organic works of 1976-7. Here, there is a very close parallel with the canvas Organic Model D (Intuitive Reason) (1976), for which this sheet could almost be seen as a preparatory drawing. See also next entry.

239      Large Organic Model (1977) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 75 x 56; Tolarno Galleries label on verso lists title, date and size [A227] - This work, shown in Arkley’s ‘White + Black’ exhibition in 1995, is closely related to Organic Model (Intuitive Reason) (1976). See also previous entry - Exhibited: HA Tolarno 9/95 (‘White + Black’), cat.16: details as above (priced at $1,800)

240      Untitled [W61] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 45.7 x 70.3 [W61] - An unusual image in which small coloured elements on a diagonal path are juxtaposed to sketchily sprayed black shading. There are some ink and black spray marks at the lower right, outside the pictorial margin indicated in pencil. The composition reappears in the next entry.

241      Untitled [W23] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 45.8 x 79 [W23] - In this two-part drawing, the two fields are abutted, and each half is divided into two; the upper left quadrant is closely comparable with the previous entry.

242      Untitled [W28] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & pencil on paper, 45.7 x 69.8 [W28] - The familiar motif of sprayed strokes (cf. e.g. cat.no.164) appears here on a large sheet divided into two equal sized fields by a vertical pencil line. The sprayed strokes are quite faint in this sketchy example.

243      Untitled [W55] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 59.4 x 81.8 [W55] - A large sheet divided into two fields, each with roughly drawn and sprayed vertical strokes. Pencilled numbers in the right margin indicate the orientation shown here.

244      Untitled [W34] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 55.8 x 76.2 [W34] - This sheet is again divided into two, with roughly ruled and sprayed verticals and horizontals respectively.

245      Untitled [W21] 1975 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 44.8 x 69.3; s+d in pencil on verso: ‘Howard Arkley 75’, and orientation indicated by ‘TOP’ [W21] - The two fields on this sheet contain wave forms and roughly sprayed verticals. The verso inscription indicates the orientation.

246      Untitled [W39] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 59.5 x 84.2 [W39] - An elegant, evocative pair of contrasting images, on a large sheet, suggesting, respectively, cascading and still water. See also cat.nos.247-8.

247      Untitled [W44] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 59.3 x 84; inscribed in pencil below image: ‘DOT PAINTING’ (with small sketch) [W44] - Two contrasting fields of horizontals: on the left, in black, ruled, and sprayed (turbulently); on the right, a series of parallel lines in several colours. The inscription indicates the orientation. See also next entry.

248      Untitled [W46] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  Ink & pencil on paper, 55.8 x 84.2 [W46] - Two contrasting fields, of wavy and straight lines, in black ink. This sheet may be seen as a pair for the previous entry.

249      Untitled [W18] 1975 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 46 x 71.5; s+d in pencil l.r. below image: ‘Howard Arkley 75’; also on verso [W18] - Here, the two contrasting fields contain, respectively, a grid pattern, and a series of black circles, either solid colour or roughly sprayed. The inscription may suggest that the work was exhibited. Arkley’s archive includes a slide showing most of the right-hand half of the sheet. Cat.no.250 is a closely similar drawing, on a slightly larger sheet.

250      Untitled [W58] 1975 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 55.8 x 76.2; s+d in pencil l.r.: ‘Howard Arkley 75’ [W58] - Two fields with grid patterning and circles. Similar imagery to the previous entry, but on a somewhat larger sheet.

251      Untitled [W22] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 46 x 70 [W22] - Two fields, gridded and sprayed. The complex grid-form or trellised square to the left also appears in the following entry.

252      Untitled [W54] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 56 x 76.2 [W54] - Two fields side by side, the one on the left sprayed, the right half comprising a gridded square similar to that in the preceding entry.

253      Untitled [W20] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 45.5 x 70 [W20] - The left half of this elegant drawing, a series of discrete shapes, is preserved in several slides in Arkley’s archive; the outlined square to the right appears in similar form in other drawings such as cat.no.191. The whole sheet of paper is employed for the images here.

254      Untitled [W60] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 45.6 x 76.1 [W60] - This highly finished composition, again in two halves, includes touches of red ink at the left, and organic shapes with ink spatter at the right.

255      Untitled [W33] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 59.5 x 84 [W33] - Arkley’s archive contains a slide of this large sheet, showing two abstract images side by side. This sheet is in excellent condition.  

256      Untitled [W17] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 46 x 71.4 [W17] - A fine pair of drawings, side by side (compare cat.no.249 etc.). The image on the left, showing vertical strokes with sprayed ‘auras’, is closely comparable with cat.no.181. On the right is an organic study including some touches of sprayed colour. Traces of a mount suggest that this work may have been exhibited at some stage.

257      Untitled [W24] (c.1974-76) [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 45.8 x 70 [W24] - One of the finest of Arkley’s 2-part ‘white’ drawings. Here, the left half echoes Inventory [Tolarno] (1975) and other canvases dating from 1974-5. The image on the right is related to Arkley’s ‘organic’ style of 1976-77, but here with the inclusion of strong touches of sprayed primary colour. There is an unlabelled slide of this sheet in Arkley’s archive.

258      The Three Notations 1978 [W/P]  SPP, ink & pencil on paper, 39.6 x 64.8; s+d in pencil l.l.: ‘Arkley 78’; New England Regional Museum, Armidale, N.S.W. (NERAM photo) - A transitional work, arranging forms and patterns typical of Arkley’s earlier ‘white’ works on paper into the door format he used for many paintings in 1978-80. The third field, to the right, is comparable with Leaves 1978. See also Untitled ['Spots'] 1978 [W/P] (cat.no.108), also dated 1978 - Provenance: gifted to NERAM by the artist in 1981.

 

Appendix: unidentified examples [App.1-11]

NB some of the works listed here may be identical with works catalogued above, as noted. However, given other uncertainties, e.g. about size (sheet or image?), none of the identifications suggested is certain, at this stage. These examples are listed in chronological and alphabetical sequence, as they appear in the main Arkley Works catalogue, starting with works dated to 1974.

App.1      Study for Actuality [Monash #2] (1974) [W/P]  SPP on P, 36 x 25.7 (sheet?). Coll.: unknown - Work shown with Study for Actuality [Monash #1] (1974) [W/P] (cat.no.85), in the 1991 Monash survey show; in this case, though, no ID photo is available. It may be identical with one of the other known examples based on this compositional idea – see e.g. Study for Actuality[A93] (1974) [W/P] and Untitled [A75] (c.1974-76) [W/P] (cat.nos.84 and 86) - Exhibited: HA Monash 1991, cat.6: details as above.

App.2      Speeding (1974?) [W/P]  Ink on paper, size unknown. Coll.: unknown - Work submitted to the Musswellbrook Prize in 1974 (no photo). Possibly identical with one of the untitled works from Arkley’s studio collection, e.g. Untitled [A187] (c.1974-78) [W/P] (cat.no.194), compositionally comparable with Fast Lid 1974 (also known as Speeding) - Exhibited: Musswellbrook Prize, 1974: details as above.

App.3      Leaves of the Leaf series (1) (1975) [W/P]  SPP on P, 23 x 17 (image?). Coll.: unknown - Unidentified work, shown in Arkley’s 1995 ‘White + Black’ exhibition at Tolarno. Cf. A Pair of Leaves 1975 [W/P] (cat.no.107)          - Exhibited: HA ‘White + Black’ 9/95, cat.10: details as above (no photo)

App.4      The Orient (1975) [W/P]  SPP on P, 76 x 56. Coll.: unknown - Unidentified work, shown in Arkley’s 1995 ‘White + Black’ exhibition at Tolarno. It may have been similar to Untitled [‘The Orient’ variant] 1976 [W/P] (cat.no.98), comprising groups of short sprayed horizontal strokes; an archive slide of the latter drawing, which was shown in Arkley’s 1991 Monash exhibition, is labeled (confusingly enough) ‘The Orient 1975’. However, the size noted for the present work suggests a larger drawing, comparable in scale with e.g. Large Organic Model (1977) [W/P] (cat.no.239), also shown in the 1995 Tolarno show, with the same dimensions - Exhibited: HA ‘White + Black’ 9/95, cat.no.16: details as above (no photo)

App.5      Oriental (wave study) (1975) [W/P]  SPP on paper, 36 x 28. Coll.: unknown - Unidentified work on paper, again included in the ‘White + Black’ show at Tolarno in 1995. Possibly identical with one of several other known early works on paper, e.g. Study for Oriental Wave Study #1 [A94] (1974) [W/P] or Study for Oriental Wave Study #2 (1974) [W/P] (cat.nos.99-100) – Exhibited: HA ‘White + Black’, Tolarno 9/95, cat.no.7: details as above (no photo)

App.6      Circular Model (1976) [W/P]  SPP on paper, 23 x 17 (image?). Coll.: unknown - Unidentified work shown in Arkley’s ‘White + Black’ exhibition at Tolarno, Sept.1995; possibly one of the works on paper catalogued above, but without further information it is very hard to single out any particular example. Circle 1977 [W/P], another unidentified ‘white’ drawing (listed below), may be related, but it appears to be a larger work - Exhibited: HA ‘White + Black’, Tolarno 9/95, cat.no.12: details as above (no photo)

App.7      Measured Model (1976) [W/P]  SPP on paper, 23 x 17 (image?). Coll.: unknown - Unidentified work shown in Arkley’s ‘White + Black’ exhibition at Tolarno, Sept.1995; possibly identical with one of the works on paper catalogued above - Exhibited: HA ‘White + Black’, Tolarno 9/95, cat.no.13: details as above (no photo)

App.8      Measured Model (E) (1976) [W/P]  SPP on paper, 23 x 17 (image?). Coll.: unknown - Unidentified work shown in Arkley’s ‘White + Black’ exhibition at Tolarno, Sept.1995; again, possibly one of the works on paper catalogued above. Presumably related to the previous entry - Exhibited: HA ‘White + Black’, Tolarno 9/95, cat.no.13: details as above (no photo)

App.9      A Primary Organic Model (1976) [W/P]  SPP on paper, 36 x 28. Coll.: unknown – Unidentified work shown in Arkley’s ‘White + Black’ exhibition at Tolarno, Sept.1995; once again, possibly one of the works on paper catalogued above. The title suggests that the composition may have been similar to Organic Model Study 1977 [W/P] (cat.no.122) or Large Organic Model (1977) [W/P] (cat.no.239), both also included in the 1995 Tolarno exhibition - Exhibited: HA ‘White + Black’, Tolarno 9/95, cat.no.9: details as above (no photo)

App.10     Circle 1977 [W/P]  SPP & ink on paper, 39.5 x 64. Signed, dated and titled (according to Sotheby’s). Coll.: unknown - Unidentified drawing, auctioned in 1997 but not reproduced in the auction catalogue (efforts to locate a photo have so far proved unsuccessful). The size indicated suggests a larger-format work. Possibly related to Circular Model (1976) [W/P], also unidentified (listed above). The present drawing may also have been similar to the central work on paper shown in the ‘White Painting’ ensemble in Arkley’s ‘Casual Works’ exhibition in 1988, but that drawing, showing two sets of short sprayed strokes and a large central circle, is much larger (on 2 sheets, measuring about 170 x 120 overall; auctioned in 2003): see now Untitled [‘White Painting’]; and source material (1988 and earlier) [W/P] - Provenance: auctioned by Sotheby’s, Melbourne, 10 Nov.1997, lot 363: details as above (but no photo seen as yet): est.$1,000-1,500 (not sold?)

App.11     Liquid Tracing (1977) [W/P]  SPP on paper, 36 x 28. Coll.: unknown - Another unidentified work from Arkley’s 1995 ‘White + Black’ exhibition at Tolarno. Cf. Tracing (Liquid) (1977?), an unidentified canvas shown in 1977 - Exhibited: HA ‘White + Black’, Tolarno 9/95, cat.no.6: details as above (no photo)